پایان نامه ها و مقالات

دانلود پایان نامه درمورد reading، recognition، form، knowledge

he order of their administration was as follows: 1) form recognition test, 2) meaning recognition test, and 3) production test. After two weeks, the participants were asked to take these three vocabulary tests as a delayed post-test to measure the long term effects of the treatment sessions and at the same time reduce any practice effect. After performing each test, the papers were collected, corrected, and marked by three different raters. The researcher also rated all the papers twice.
The results indicated that reading comprehension has an effect on recognizing vocabulary form, recognizing vocabulary meaning and producing the vocabulary in short time and long time after reading a text. However, the results showed that reading comprehension had the most profound effect on meaning recognition of new vocabulary in the post-test. In the delayed post-test, on the other hand, the results revealed that reading comprehension was most effective for promoting learners form recognition knowledge of target vocabulary.
5.2. Conclusion
Foreign language vocabulary learning is the heart of learning a foreign language. Therefore, the current study was conducted to explore the effects of reading comprehension on three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge namely form recognition, meaning recognition and production. Based on the above results and discussion, the following findings emerge from the present investigation. The results of the data analysis rejected all the hypothesis of the study.
According to the participants’ performance in the post-test, it is concluded that reading comprehension has an effect on vocabulary form recognition, vocabulary meaning recognition and vocabulary production. Therefore reading comprehension is an effective way to learn new foreign language vocabulary knowledge.
Specifically, this study showed that learners made an improvement in form recognition test in short time. Thus, it shows that reading comprehension is more effective for recognizing vocabulary meaning after a short period of time.
With regard to the participants’ performance in the delayed post-test, it is concluded that reading comprehension benefited learners’ three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge. Thus reading comprehension can be one of the best ways for teaching and learning vocabulary knowledge for EFL learners.
Furthermore, this research indicated that after an extended period of time vocabulary form recognition developed more than the other two dimensions from reading comprehension. Therefore, it is possible that the development of meaning recognition in short time retention facilitated the subsequent acquisition of form recognition in long time retention. Furthermore, because vocabulary learning is a dynamic, complicated process some dimensions of vocabulary knowledge might appear after a period of time.
In summary, the results showed that EFL learners learn all the three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge through reading comprehension. But reading comprehension is an effective and efficient activity for EFL learners to learn vocabulary meaning recognition in a short time and vocabulary form recognition after a period of time, and it needs more attention from L2 teachers to find a suitable activity for learning vocabulary production.
5.3. Implications of the study
The findings of the present study suggest several implications with regard to the learning of vocabulary knowledge.
One implication from this study is that different activities should be prepared by teachers for vocabulary learning to help learners develop different dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, because the current study confirmed that a vocabulary teaching activity may have differential effect on different aspects of vocabulary knowledge.
One reasonable pedagogical implication of the current study consider different aspects of vocabulary knowledge especially dimensions that are related to the production and use of language.
5.4. Limitations of the study
There are certain limitations to note in this study. First, the number of participants was not very high which limit the generalization of the results.
Another limitation of the present study is that it was carried out with intermediate EFL learners who were just male. It seems that the results of this study would have been more generalizable if it had been conducted based on a sample that included both male and female in all levels and with a larger sample.
5.5. Suggestions for further research
While this study has given us more insights into which dimensions of vocabulary are learned from reading, several suggestions may be done from the current study and doing further research may be necessary.
This research examined the effects of reading comprehension on three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge namely, form recognition, meaning recognition and production. Other researchers can conduct the effects of other skills such as listening, writing and speaking on these three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge.
Further, some researchers can investigate the effects of reading comprehension on different aspects of form vocabulary knowledge such as spoken form or word parts. Moreover, other studies could be conducted with different aspects of meaning vocabulary knowledge such as form and meaning, concept and reference, and associations. Also some studies could be done with different aspects of use of vocabulary knowledge such as grammatical functions, collocations.
Another suggestion is that other studies could be conducted with more target words. In this study there are only 20 word items serving as the target word items to be tested. If there were larger number of word items, the reliability of the study could be more.
Similar research could be done with a variety of word item. In this study, of all 20 word items, most of the word items are “nouns” (14), and there isn’t any word item that is “verb” or “adverb”.
All of the participants in this study were at intermediate level. Similar research could be come out on other participants at other levels such as advanced learners or university students. Moreover, all of the participants were male, so, gender factor could be added to the variable of the other studies.

این مطلب مشابه را هم بخوانید :   پایان نامه با کلید واژگانlanguage، learning، NLP، internal

References
Ahmad, J. (2011). Intentional vs. incidental vocabulary learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3 (5), 67-75.
Aitchison, J. (1994). Words in the mind. An introduction to the mental lexicon. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Alavi, S. and Keyvanshekouh, A. (2012). Using the MoodleReader as an Extensive Reading Tool and its Effect on Iranian EFL Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Learning. English Language Teaching, 5 (6), 135-145.
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, R. C., Wilson, P., & Fielding, L. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time out of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 285-303.
Anderson, R.C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabulary knowledge. InJ. T. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 77-117.
Bahrick, H. P., & Phelps, E. (1987). Retention of Spanish vocabulary over 8 years. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13, 344–349.
Brown, C. & Payne, M. E. (1994).Five essential steps of processes in vocabulary Learning. Paper presented at the TESOL Convention, Baltimore, Md.
Brown, C. (1993). Factors affecting the acquisition of vocabulary: Frequency and saliency of words. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary learning (pp. 263–286). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Brown, R., Waring, R., & Donkaewbua, S. (2008). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(2), 136-163.
Cameron, L. (2
001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Candlin, C. N. (1988). Preface. In R. Carter & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching. New York: Longman.
Carroll, D.W. (2008). Psychology of language. Thomson Wadsworth press, USA
Chapelle, C. (1998). Construct definition and validity in quiry in SLA research. In L. F. Bachman & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between second language acquisition and language testing research. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 32-70.
Coady, J. (1997). L2 vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 225-237.
Collins, M. F. (2010). ELL preschoolers’ English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 84-97.
Cronbach, L.J. (1942). Ananalysis of techniques for diagnostic vocabulary testing. Journal of Educationl Research, 36, 206–217.
Day, R. R., Omura, C. and Hiramatsu, M. (1991). Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and reading. Reading in a Foreign Language 7, 541–51.
Day, R., & Swan, J. (1998). Incidental vocabulary of foreign language spelling throughtargeted reading. TESL Reporter, 31(1), 1-9.
De la Fuente, M.J. (2006). Classroom L2 vocabulary acquisition: Investigating the role of pedagogical tasks and form-focused instruction. Language Teaching Research, 10, 263–95.
Dupuy, B. and Krashen, S.D. (1993). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in French as a foreign language. Applied Language Learning 4, 55–63.
Elley, W. (1989). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 174–187.
Elley, W. B. & Mangubai, F. (1981). The impact of a book flood in Fiji primary schools. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Ellis, N. (1994). Implicit and explicit language learning: An overview. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages. NewYork: Academic Press, 1-31.
Ellis, N. (1999). The roles of modified input and output in the incidental acquisition of word meanings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 285-301.
Ellis, R. (1995). Modified input and the acquisition of word meanings. Applied Linguistics, 16, 409-441.
Eringa, D. (1974) Enseigner, c’est choisir: vocabulaire-verwering. Levende Talen. 306, 260 267.
Faerch, C., Haastrup, K., & Phillipson, R. (1984). Learner Language and Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Fan, Y. M. (2003). Frequency of use, perceived usefulness, and actual usefulness of second language vocabulary strategies: A study of Hong Kong learners. The Modern Language Journal, 87(2), 222-241.
Folse, K. S. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 273–93.
Fukkink, R. G., Blok, H., & de Glopper, K. (2001). Deriving word meaning from written context: A multicomponential skill. Language Learning, 51, 477-496.
Ghabanchi, Z. and Ayoubi, E.S. (2012). Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Recall By Intermediate Foreign Language Students: The Influence Of Marginal Glosses, Dictionary Use, And Summary Writing. Journal of International Education Research, 8 (2), 85-96.
Gipe, J. P. and Arnold, R. D. (1979). Teaching vocabulary through familiar associations and contexts. Journal of Reading Behavior 11, 282–85.
Grabe, W., & F. L. Stoller (1997). Reading and vocabulary development in a second language. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.) Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 98-122.
Griffin, G. and T. Harley (1996) ‘List Learning of Second Language Vocabulary’, Applied Psycholinguistics 17, 443-60.
Groot, P. M. J. and J. G. Hoekstra. (1981). Tests of English vocabulary command for EFL students at University level. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen. 11, 98-136.
Haastrup, K., & Henriksen, B. (2000). Vocabulary acquisition: Acquiring depth of knowledge through network building.

Leave a Reply