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پایان نامه با کلید واژگان tradition، interest

and affect. Therefore, the researcher wishes to demonstrate how Deleuze’s notion of becoming in the process of reconstructing the newly born world is applicable to Becket’s three main characters in the mentioned plays, Krapp, Hamm, Clov, and the woman’s mouth. The researcher also aims to examine if the mentioned characters are either successful to defeat fixed order and be born again according to Deleuze’s project of coming back to no origin and creating everything other than representations of traditional things.
Besides, the researcher seeks to construe the chosen plays to see if Deleuze’s becoming and affect are applicable to Becket’s depiction of his male and female figures. Also to trace notions such as Deleuze’s becoming and affect in Becket’s portrayal of seeking for freedom and transformation are represented in his plays. Finally, the thesis aims to scrutinize diverse aspects of Becket’s distinguished style of writing in the mentioned plays to see if they can align with Deleuze’s tenet of ‘becoming’ to make a subversive revolutionary type of writing.
What makes Deleuzean study of Becket’s plays significant lies in the fact that both Beckett and Deleuze interestingly share certain notions despite difference of time and place, they lived in. In fact, Becket’s plays deal with the subject of despair and the will to survive in spite of that despair, in the face of an uncomprehending and incomprehensible world as an end to such plays. Thus, Samuel Becket has been often under attacks of those who accused him of depicting pessimistic images of life, absurdity, mental illness, pain, and torture for a long time. However, when such notorious issues are reread under the lights of Deleuzean tenets one can realize how people should free their selves to glorify becoming others rather than being human This becoming other seems to be a means to break from the old and be born again, and to create people’s free language that does not repress any desire, and consequently Becket’s works are capable to gain a higher and deeper significance. In this way, the three chosen plays read as not only multilayered representations of human psyche, but also as detailed practices of what Deleuze describes as the becoming through everything of the multidimensional things that would accord the reader of this study a wider horizons for understanding and expounding them.
One of the main issues Deleuze points to in Capitalism and schizophera is the fact that humans should enter the world of imagination since it is through art and philosophy that they can speak. Opposing capitalist society, “he does not differentiate between reality and becoming other than reality; he actually equates them considering becoming as a freedom” (496-97). For Becket as well, the program of becoming plays the main role in his plays to such an extent that the principle concern of his three main female and male characters in all three plays is the struggle with their restricted world and the attempt to find a way to speak out. Krapp of Krapp’s Last Tape, Hamm and Clov in Endgame, and the mouth in Not I all struggle obstinately to find a way to cure both their loneliness and their souls. And at the same time, they try to find a way to express their thoughts through becoming and create the language of their own.
The revolutionary use of language is another means by which humanity can free itself from oppression as Deleuze argues, on being kept in the dark prison of humanity for centuries, it is time for humans to break their prolonged silence and to get rid of the overwhelming of capitalist society and its traditions in which man is always subject to passivity and destruction. To do this, it is time to revolutionize the language and create a special writing in which not only human but things are also given voice; “a language that does not deny the others but gives them courage and space to speak up as well; a language that breaks all norms, classes, regulations, and codes sweeping away the syntax” (Deleuze 497-49). Therefore the research serves to demonstrate how Becket has artistically used this quality in his three plays as he has created a unique language of his own from which one cannot expect the common qualities of traditional literary language. He tries to communicate by means of an incommunicable language that at first seems to be too chaotic and fragmented but aided by Deleuzean projects, it acquires deeper dimensions of understanding. The quality of the other dimensions mentioned in Deleuze’s revolutionary theory enhances the reader’s understanding of Becket’s plays as there is constant fusion of human voices and things in these works indicated in the voices of Krapp, Hamm/ Clove, and the woman’s. Consequently, these voices that may even confuse the reader at first implying a chaotic mixture of voices with no aim of communication; however, when regarded under the light of Deleuze’s representation of other things language, one can see the purpose behind giving voice to the other, avoidance of any humanity, and bringing us to the scene rather than I. Therefore, this research can enhance reader’s horizon of understanding of Becket’s theater in creating becoming and affect on the basis of what Deleuze sets forth through the power of language.
Another significant issue the researcher aims to enhance in Becket’s plays through the lights of Deleuzean dictums is the process of becoming. In other words, one of the outcomes of becoming is the rebirth of inhumanity despite all the chains and repressions that pin it in the margin of the capitalist society. “Deleuze urges humanity to take the risk of being things to step outside the capitalist circles that exercises the constant vigilance of the other. He believes that it is only by the means of speaking/ writing that they can take a journey to things returning back to themselves” ( Capitalism and schizophera 457-64). I would claim that Deleuze believes that you are affect, you are flux and machine. So you have freedom to be something that you are not. Becoming shows human being is collection of sounds, colors, textures, voices, and noises. There is no center, no being. He shatters everything “I am collection of sounds, forms, and shapes, I am not human anymore” (56). As the researcher has observed, the same notion has been practiced by Becket’s characters who are brought out of the vigilance of a humanity Krapp/ Hamm- to reaffirms what Deleuze calls “Newly Born” in his essay. The researcher believes that Samuel Becket’s characters in these three works are often mentally disturbed due to the repressions and violent tortures of capitalist society in a melancholic distressing condition. They are mostly trapped in the transcendence systems that push them into the margin, keep them in the dark and make them feel deprived of their drives- in case of Hamm and Clov in Endgame- and even from being a human- in case of Krapp and the woman’s mouth in Not I.
However, no matter how impossible it seems to be, some of these figures succeed to break their silence and accomplish the journey back to becoming other things rather than human, a journey into the light as Krapp’s Last Tape’s character Krapp desires, becoming tape, As we can see, Krapp is reduced to voice “spoooooooooooooool”. He is getting lost in his identity. He can’t live without tape, he enjoys becoming other, he is becoming voice. Or in Endgame becoming silent in the eyes of Hamm and Clov is accentuated a lot. Throughout the play, they are silent and this can be expounded as a becoming silent. They talk clearly but inside the conversation, the reader can barely find any meaningful sentences that make sense. Becoming voice and silence can be seen in Not I too. She also uses a lot of fragmented sentences with huge pauses that is capable to be read as an act of becoming. These are the examples of stepping outside the formed, order, and meaningful world. Therefore, in the vein of these viewpoints, this study is able to broaden the domain of interpretations of Becket’s plays far from simple attribution of mere notions such as death, destruction, and violence to them.
In addition, the notion of affect is another major procedure in Deleuzean program through which the researcher aims to provide readers with a more perfect understanding of Becket’s representations of silence and fear. Deleuze maintains that affect of fear and silence can be seen in any work of art in contrast with what capitalist society believes. Thus, “writing is a pure search for freedom that is not destructive without attributing any labels or classifications to anyone” (Deleuze I 443). The researcher claims that this kind of freedom is one of the main concerns of Becket reflected in his mentioned plays. In fact his works are involved in a freedom through which his characters are shaped and evolutionalized. They all crave for freedom in totality, a freedom that does not exclude the other, or nor aims at any dominance over it, but wants it to be completed. As it is manifested in Krapp Last Tape, Krapp seeks freedom from this dark world through becoming tape and silence. He attempts to be everything other than himself. Affect of fear and loneliness in Endgame is shown through Hamm who craves for disappearing from this gloomy atmosphere despite the fact that Clov humiliates him each time he declares his will and threatens him by leaving. Also, the woman’s mouth in Not I gives voice to her disappointing love which makes her sing now after ages of silence, and thereby sees herself alone and useless. In fact she desires for the other to uplift her soul,

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