پایان نامه با کلید واژگان perceptions
پایان نامه با کلید واژگان perceptions
words come one after the other and without referring to any specific meaning. In fact, most of the characters in Beckett’s plays don’t talk in a meaningful way. Thus the woman in this play is one of the best examples of words that are voiced by the mouth without thought or meaning.
As Deleuze and Guattari insist in their book, A Thousand Plateaus, it seems necessary to distinguish between three types of deterritorialization: the first type is relative, proper to the strata, and culminates in significance; the second is absolute, but still negative and static, and appears in subjectification; finally, there is the possibility of a positive absolute deterritorialization on the plane of consistency or the body without organs. Based on these categories, the third one is foregrounded in this play as one can detect deterritorialization in the woman’s words. Actually, when nothing can be seen but mouth this can be construed as the representation of body without organs that the researcher aims to make clear. In fact, mouth’s words follow the line of deterritorialization. This play is full of breaks, transitions, and uncompleted phrases
tiny little thing . . . out before its time . . . godforsaken hole . . . no love . . . spared that . . . speechless all her days . . . practically speechless . . . even to herself . . . never out loud . . . but not completely…(68)
that can represent a-signifiying regime in the shadow of meaningless world.
3.2 Becoming- Not I
For Deleuze life begins with pure difference or becoming, or tendencies to differ – such as the differential waves of sound and light, and these differences are in turn actualized by different points of perception: such as the human eye. Our world of beings, the extended terms that we perceive, are contractions of flows of becoming. As it mentioned before the supposed real world that would lie behind the flux of becoming is not, Deleuze insists, a stable world of being; there ‘is’ nothing other than the flow of becoming. All ‘beings’ are just relatively stable moments in a flow of becoming-life. The obstacle to thinking becoming, according to Deleuze, is humanism and subjectivism. And by negation of subjectivity in this play she is welcomed to the world of becoming. The task here is to think without models, axioms or grounds and this is represented in this play when she does not belong to anything even the world of order in language. The attempt to become imperceptible – no longer disengaged from life and difference – by becoming one with the flow of images that is life is the key word in Deleuze’s philosophy of becoming. By becoming Deleuze means approaching or imaging the inhuman point of view of animals, machines and molecules that we no longer have to take ourselves as unchanging perceivers set over and against life. We can immerse ourselves in the flow of life’s perceptions. The human becomes more than itself, or expands to its highest power, not by affirming its humanity, nor by returning to animal state, but by becoming-hybrid with what is not itself. This creates ‘lines of flight’; from life itself we imagine all the becomings of life, using the human power of imagination to overcome the human.
To become is not to attain a form (identification, Mimesis) but to find the zone of proximity, indiscernibility or indifferentiation where one can no longer be distinguished from a woman, an animal, or a molecule. Neither imprecise nor general, but unforeseen and non preexistent, singularized out of a population rather than determined in a form, becoming is always between or among a woman between women or an animal among others. Also becoming other of language means a minorization of this major language a delirium that carries it off, a witch’s line that escapes the dominant system. According to Deleuze’s postulate, becoming-imperceptible involves the challenge of abandoning or transforming the perceived image of thought or point of view from which we judge and order life. This allows a new notion of freedom: not the freedom of a human self who can be disengaged from the force of life, but a freedom gained by no longer seeing ourselves as a point of view detached from life. We become free from the human, open to the event of becoming. There is a freedom in no longer seeing the world from our partial and moralizing perspectives. In perceiving the force and power of life that is also ourselves we become with life, affirming its creative power: no longer reacting against life from a position of illusory human judgment.
In Essays Critical and Clinical, Deleuze argues that Beckettian characters usually strive towards becoming imperceptible and he states that becoming imperceptible is life. The literal and self-evident meaning of life seems somehow incompatible with the image of dissolving and decaying characters in Beckett’s works. Contrary to this self-evidence, the notion of life in Beckett should be represented as pure potentiality which opens both the potential to be (or do) and the potential not to be (or do). The life of the individual gives way to impersonal and singular life: a life of pure immanence. Such a life can be immanent to a woman who no longer has a name. Beckett deals with that which cannot be uttered, known or represented, but whose image the works (and its figures) have become, a thinking through of negativity, becoming, and multiplicity, of being as becoming, where every movement brings something new into the world.
It is a matter of relationships of intensities through which the subject passes on the body without organs, a process that engages her in becomings, rises and falls, migrations and displacements. In fact the body without organs is nonproductive; nonetheless it is produced, at a certain place and a certain time in the connective synthesis, as the identity of producing and the product: the schizophrenic table is a body without organs. The body without organs is not the proof of an original nothingness, nor is it what remains of a lost totality. Above all, it is not a projection; it has nothing whatsoever to do with the body itself, or with an image of the body. It is the body without an image. This imageless, organless body, the nonproductive, exists right there where it is produced, in the third stage of the binary-linear series. It is perpetually reinserted into the process of production. We pass from one field to another by crossing thresholds: we never stop migrating, we become other individuals as well as other sexes, and departing becomes as easy as being born or dying. Along the way we struggle against other races, we destroy civilizations, in the manner of the great migrants in whose wake nothing is left standing once they have passed through— although these destructions can be brought about, as we shall see, in very different ways. The mouth is entirely right in defining the schizophrenic process as a voyage of initiation, a transcendental experience of the loss of the Ego, which causes a subject to remark:
–– . . . what? . . who? . . no! . . she! . . [Pause and movement 1.] . . . found herself in the dark . . . and if not exactly . . . insentient . . . insentient . . . for she could still hear the buzzing . . . so-called . . . in the ears . . . and a ray of light came and went . . . came and went . . . (678)
When we speak here of a voyage, it is a voyage from ego to nothingness, it is a process of becoming. The ego is like daddy mommy: the schizo has long since ceased to believe in it. He is somewhere else, beyond or behind or below these problems, rather than immersed in them. And wherever he is, there are problems, insurmountable sufferings, unbearable needs. But why try to bring him back to what he has escaped from, why set him back down amid problems that are no longer problems to him, why mock his truth by believing that we have paid it its due by merely figuratively taking our hats off to it? There are those who will maintain that the schizo is incapable of uttering the word I, and that we must restore his ability to pronounce this hallowed word. All of which the schizo sums up by saying: they’re fucking me over again. “I won’t say / anymore, I’ll never utter the word again; it’s just too damn stupid. Every time I hear it, I’ll use the third person instead, if I happen to remember to. If it amuses them. And it won’t make one bit of difference.” And if he does chance to utter the word I again, that won’t make any difference either. He is too far removed from these problems, too far past them (Anti-Oedipus 356).
Thus, one can realize three major becomings in the play. First, becoming silence comes into consideration. As you can see pauses and silences abound in the play:
-– . . . what? . . who? . . no! . . she! . . [Pause and movement 1.] . . . found herself in the dark . . . and if not exactly . . . insentient . . . insentient . . . for she could still hear the buzzing . . . so-called . . . in the ears . . . and a ray of light came and went . . . came and went . . . such as the moon might cast . . . drifting . . . in and out of cloud . . . but so dulled . . . feeling . . . feeling so dulled . . . she did not know . . . what position she was in . . . imagine! . . what position she was in! . . whether standing . . . or sitting . . . but the brain– . . . what?. . kneeling? . . yes . . . whether standing . . . or sitting . . . or kneeling . . . but the brain– . . . what? . . lying? . . yes . .(678)
The textual evidence can convincingly associate the woman’s loneliness and depression. Through these pauses, the reader cannot get any meaning but the process of