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پایان نامه رایگان درمورد Yes، definition:، ………………………………………………………، No

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of the water is like a great tidal wave. Unleashed dam waters can travel tens of kilometres, cover the ground in metres of mud and debris, and drown and crush every thing and creature in their path.

Although scientists cannot always predict exactly when floods will occur, they do know a great deal about when floods are likely, or probably, going to occur. Deep snow, ice-covered rivers, and weak dams are all strong conditions for potential flooding. Hopefully, this knowledge of why floods happen can help us reduce the damage they cause.

Answer the questions.

1. Which of the following words are NOT natural disasters?
a) flood
b) earthquake
c) airplane crash
d) typhoon

1. Which of the following are included as causes for floods in the reading passage?
a) droughts
b) large lakes
c)  poorly built roads
d) melting snow

2. How does deep snow cause flooding?
a) Melting snow causes flooding.
b) Too much rain causes flooding.
c) Sudden warm temperatures combined with heavy rains causes flooding.
d) Freezing water causes flooding.

3. A broken human-made dam is compared to what?
a) a tsunami
b) a tidal wave
c) a broken ice dam
d) overflowing

4. Which of the following best describes how a frozen river can cause a flood.
a) The ice in the river melts too quickly and causes a flood.
b) The ice in the river cracks causing the water to overflow.
c) The ice in the river cracks into pieces that eventually create a dam causing the water to overflow.
d) The water behind the ice dam collects and when the dam breaks, it causes flooding upstream.
5. How far can dam water travel when it is unleashed from a broken dam?
a) less than 10 kilometres
b) tens of kilometers
c)  thousands of kilometers
d) tens of thousands of kilometres downstream

6. Why does saturated ground contribute to flooding problems?
a) The ground cannot absorb more moisture.
b) The ground is too hard, so the water runs off.
c) The ground forms a kind of dam.
d) It remains frozen.

7. What kinds of problems can floods cause?
a) death
b)  widespread damage
c) destruction of plants and animals
d) all of the above

8. What is the most common natural disaster?
a) flood
b) fire
c) wind damage
d)  rain

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9. How does melting snow cause problems related to flooding?
a)  It makes the rivers run too fast.
b) It makes the water too cold.
c) It causes pieces of ice to block the river.
d)  It makes the level of the river rise.

APPENDIX B

Pre-test
Each of the following sentences contains an underlined word. Check if the word is familiar or unfamiliar. If the word is familiar to you write its Persian or English definition.

1. Voters can mail in their printed ballot, or place it in a designated ballot box.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

2. I looked through the transparent glass.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

3. The transparency of the window was impeded by a thick layer of dust.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

4. I was the biggest socialist member in the town.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

5. His parents advise him to be so conservative on his political speeches.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

6. Many people were killed in the revolution.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

7. Some politicians want more liberal trade relations with Europe.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

8. One of the most important missions of United Nation’s representatives is peacekeeping in different countries.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

9. She saw an impressive building with a huge tower.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

10. Finally, the republic party won the election.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

11. He pushed against the rock with all his strength.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

12. Antelopes are beautiful and can run very fast.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

13. Springbok is known for its speed.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

14. They have a great massive house.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

15. The city offers lively entertainment and nightlife.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

16. We had agreed to meet at the library, but Alex didn’t show up.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

17. Different kind of plants can be found at gorge.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

18. There are several thousand species of trees here.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

19. A beautiful coral reef encloses the bay.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

20. She likes to live in an imperial palace in Tokyo.

Yes definition: ………………………………………………………
No

21. In the new digging, many valuable artifacts have been found.

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