um Autonomy Correlations 95
Table 4.48 Total Autonomy Correlations 96
Table 4.49 Descriptive Statistics of General Autonomy, Styles and NLP 101
Table 4.50 Descriptive Statistics of Curriculum Autonomy, Styles and NLP 102
Table 4.51 Descriptive Statistics of Total Autonomy, Styles and NLP 102
Table 4.52 Variables Entered/Removed 102
Table 4.53 Variables Entered/Removed 103
Table 4.54 Variables Entered/Removed 103
Table 4.55 Model Summary (General Autonomy) 104
Table 4.56 Model Summary (Total Autonomy) 104
Table 4.57 Model Summary (Curriculum Autonomy) 104
Table 4.58 ANOVA (General Autonomy) 105
Table 4.59 ANOVA (Curriculum Autonomy) 105
Table 4.60 ANOVA (Total Autonomy) 105
Table 4.61 Coefficientsa (Dependent Variable: General Autonomy) 107
Table 4.62 Coefficientsa (Dependent Variable: Curriculum Autonomy) 108
Table 4.63 Coefficientsa (Dependent Variable: Total Autonomy) 110
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1 General Autonomy Scatter Plot 90
Figure 4.2 Curriculum Autonomy Scatter Plot 90
Figure 4.3 Total Autonomy Scatter Plot 90
Figure 4.4 The Normal Probability Plot of the Regression Standardized Residuals
Dependent Variable: General Autonomy 98
Figure 4.5 The Normal Probability Plot of the Regression Standardized Residuals
Dependent Variable: Curriculum Autonomy 98
Figure 4.6 The Normal Probability Plot of the Regression Standardized Residuals
Dependent Variable: Total Autonomy 99
Figure 4.7 Scatter plot of the Standardized Residuals Dependent Variable: General Autonomy 100
Figure 4.8 Scatter plot of the Standardized Residuals Dependent Variable: Total Autonomy 100
Figure 4.9 Scatter Plot of the Standardized Residuals Dependent Variable: Curriculum Autonomy 101
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE
With the spread of globalization, language learning and teaching, as many other skills, are gaining more and more prominence every day. This phenomenon, language learning and teaching, has two sides: teacher and learner who influence the process in different ways. Menken (2000) believes that half of all teachers may anticipate educating an English language learner during their career. Along the same lines, according to Vieira and Gaspar (2013), with regard to impact on education effectiveness, teachers arise as a significant factor, accounting for about 30% of the variance on pupils’ achievement. Students have different learning styles and familiarity with learning style differences will help instructors; so teachers apply different teaching styles that suit their setting and their students’ needs. To overcome mismatches between learning styles of learners and the teaching styles of the instructors, teachers should tailor their approach to meet student learning needs meaning that they can combine teaching styles for different types of content and diversity of student needs. According to Purkey & Novak (1984, p. 13), “Good teaching is the process of inviting students to see themselves as able, valuable, and self-directing and of encouraging them to act in accordance with these self-perceptions”.
According to Brown (2000) and Mitchell &Myles (2004), different
theories in language learning have been studied through a variety of perspectives, many of which have shown that understanding significant elements in multiple and diverse perspectives, not in a single factor, is very critical. One of the approaches to communication, learning and personal development that has received much popularity is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP); it appears to be utilized to a large extent in education today; whereas academic world is still silent regarding this subject (Tosey P, Mathinson J, 2010). NLP approach to learning and teaching emphasizes internal or mental factors as contrasted with environmental or external factors as many traditional behaviorists, Carey et al, diagnosed that there has been a growing and developing education literature referring to both adults and children right from the time of the publication of the earliest popular books on NLP and teaching and learning (Harper,1982; Dilts, 1983a; Jacobson, 1983). According to Hardingham (1998), NLP has been seen as one of the resources to enhance effectiveness of language instruction. In addition, NLP claims to be efficacious in achieving excellence of performance, ameliorating classroom communication, raising self-esteem, optimizing students’ motivation and attitudes, facilitating personal growth in students and even alter their attitude to life (Thornbury, 2001, p.394). Moreover, Helm (1989) argues that “Teachers use a variety of instructional techniques, but again not know how to comprehend what is thought” (p1). In most of the instructional institutions, there are several issues when teaching is considered. Multiple intellectuals involved in the field of educational reform assert that empowering teachers is where we can commence solving the schools’ problems (Melenyzer, 1990; Short, 1994). Along the same line, allowing teachers more freedom in the instructional environment could be one of the major factors resulting in the empowerment of instructors since they are permitted to use their experience and insights in making decisions and solving the problems. Pearson and Moomaw (2006) stated that:
if teachers are to be empowered and regarded as professionals, then like other professionals, they must have the freedom to prescribe the best treatment for their students as doctors or lawyers do for their clients. This freedom is teacher autonomy. (p.44).
On the other hand, according to Masouleh and Jooneghani (2011), the term autonomy has sparked considerable controversy, inasmuch as linguists and educationalists have failed to reach a consensus as to what autonomy really is. In fact, autonomy in language learning is a desirable goal for philosophical, pedagogical, and practical reasons. Street (1988), believes teacher autonomy is “the independence teachers maintain in exercising discretion within their classrooms to make instructional decisions”. (p. 4).
This study is to focus on the important educational factors that can prove how teachers’ teaching styles, autonomy and NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming) can be related to each other.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The results of recent studies indicated teachers benefit from developing an understanding of how they and others learn as well as the effect this has on their teaching, Evans & Waring (2006). Teaching and learning language is a complex and multifaceted process. On the one hand, the emphasis should be placed on developing language skills; in order to have an effective instruction, teachers should take into account the individual differences concerning learning (styles and needs) and choose appropriate teaching styles to increase the chances of their achievement in their career.
Guild (2001) believes that educators must abandon singular mentality and realize the essential necessity of endeavoring to develop a true understanding of learning differences and striving to provide instruction that is intentionally diverse. According to Caine & Caine (1991), understanding the functions of the brain and incorporating this in designing learning experiences can significantly improve the effectiveness of student learning. Therefore, teachers, through the use of NLP techniques and laying the emphasis on internal and mental factors, can significantly influence their process of teaching and choosing various instructional practices. Moreover, teaching methods and styles in all teachers and instructors stem from a specific philosophy of education,
although they may not be aware of what that philosophy is. In this regard, what is obvious is that teachers’ teaching style reflects on what they value in education, and what methods they believe are effective. Laut (1999) states that one approach (which at different times changes depending on the needs of students) usually dominates a teacher’s actions.
A growing interest in new methods arise the problem of matching students’ needs with new teaching styles of the teachers. How the teaching styles, teachers’ autonomy and NLP are related to each other and the ways in which they interact together is the main issue of this work.
1.3. Statement of the Research Questions
The purpose of the present study was to answer the following questions:
1. Is there any significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching style and their autonomy?
2. Is there any significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching style and their NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)?
3. Is there any significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ autonomy and their NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)?
Considering existence of a significant relationship among the three variables, the following research question was posed:
Q4: Is there any significant difference between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and their NLP in predicting autonomy?
1.4. Statement of the Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and their autonomy.
2. There is no significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and their NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming).
3. There is no significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ autonomy and their NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming).
4. There is no significant difference between Iranian EFL teachers’ teaching styles and their NLP in predicting autonomy?
1.5. Definition of Key Terms:
1.5.1. Teachers’ Teaching Styles:
Teaching styles are considered as “manners or modes of acting or performing defined by guiding and directing instructional processes as well as patterns of needs, beliefs, and behaviors displayed in the classroom”. (Grasha, 2002, p.38).
In this study, teachers’ teaching style is operationally defined by the scores that participants obtained through their answers to a Teachers’ teaching styles questionnaires named Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory (1994) version 3.0, including 40 items. It asked teachers to complete the scale about themselves and their teaching preferences. The sentences that start the questionnaire are: “Try to answer as honestly and as objectively as you can.” and “Resist the temptation to respond as you believe you should or ought to think or behave, or in terms of what you believe is the expected or proper thing to do.”
Autonomy is “having a sense of one’s own identity and an ability to act independently and to exert some control over one’s environment, including a sense of task mastery, internal locus of control, and self-efficacy” (Benard, 1995, p. 1).
In addition, teacher autonomy is defined as “the independence teachers maintain in exercising discretion within their classrooms to make instructional decisions” (Street, 1988, p. 4).
In this research, teachers’ autonomy is operationally defined by the scores that candidates obtained through their answers to a Pearson and Moomaw’s Teacher Autonomy Survey (2005), is comprised of 18 questions originally designed so as to elicit the extent to which teachers perceive they have autonomy in the following areas: (1) instructional planning and sequencing, (2) personal on-the-job decision making, (3) selection of activities and materials, and (4) classroom standards of conduct.
1.5.3. NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)
It is both a technology for communication and personal development, and (as it claimed to be originally) a methodology or modeling process (Cameron-Bandler et al 1985; Dilts 1998a;